Lele Sangkuriang

Ikan-ikan marga Clarias dikenali dari tubuhnya yang licin memanjang tak bersisik, dengan sirip punggung dan sirip anus yang juga panjang, yang kadang-kadang menyatu dengan sirip ekor, menjadikannya nampak seperti sidat yang pendek.  Kepalanya keras menulang di bagian atas, dengan mata yang kecil dan mulut lebar yang terletak di ujung moncong, dilengkapi dengan empat pasang sungut peraba (barbels) yang amat berguna untuk bergerak di air yang gelap.  Lele juga memiliki alat pernapasan tambahan berupa modifikasi dari busur insangnya. Terdapat sepasang patil, yakni duri tulang yang tajam, pada sirip-sirip dadanya.  Ada yang mengatakan bahwa patil ini tidak hanya tajam tetapi juga beracun dan mengakibatkan panas tinggi jika orang tak sengaja terkena patil tersebut.

Lele tidak pernah ditemukan di air payau atau air asin, kecuali lele laut yang tergolong ke dalam marga dan suku yang berbeda (Ariidae).  Habitatnya di sungai dengan arus air yang perlahan, rawa, telaga, waduk, sawah yang tergenang air.  Bahkan ikan lele bisa hidup pada air yang tercemar, misalkan di got-got dan selokan pembuangan.

Ikan lele bersifat nokturnal, yaitu aktif bergerak mencari makanan pada malam hari.  Pada siang hari, ikan lele berdiam diri dan berlindung di tempat-tempat gelap.  Di alam, ikan lele memijah pada musim penghujan.  Walaupun biasanya lele lebih kecil daripada gurami umumnya, namun ada beberapa jenis lele yang bisa mencapai panjang 1-1,5 m dan beratnya bisa mencapai lebih dari 2 kg, contohnya lele Wels dari Amerika.

Banyak jenis lele yang merupakan ikan konsumsi yang disukai orang.  Sebagian jenis lele telah dibiakkan orang, namun kebanyakan spesiesnya ditangkap dari populasi liar di alam.  Lele dumbo yang populer sebagai ikan ternak, sebetulnya adalah jenis asing yang didatangkan (diintroduksi) dari Afrika.

Lele dikembangbiakkan di Indonesia untuk konsumsi dan juga untuk menjaga kualitas air yang tercemar.  Seringkali lele ditaruh di tempat-tempat yang tercemar karena bisa menghilangkan kotoran-kotoran.  Lele yang ditaruh di tempat-tempat yang kotor harus diberok terlebih dahulu sebelum siap untuk dikonsumsi. Diberok itu ialah maksudnya dipelihara pada air yang mengalir selama beberapa hari dengan maksud untuk membersihkannya.

Kadangkala lele juga ditaruh di sawah karena memakan hama-hama yang berada di sawah.  Lele sering pula ditaruh di kolam-kolam atau tempat-tempat air tergenang lainnya untuk menanggulangi tumbuhnya jentik-jentik nyamuk.

Di seluruh dunia ikan lele didapatkan dengan cara ditangkap maupun dibudidayakan.  Penilaian terhadap rasa dari daging ikan ini bervariasi, ada yang menganggapnya memiliki rasa yang luar biasa, ada yang menganggapnya tidak memiliki rasa yang kuat.   Di Eropa ikan ini dimasak dengan cara yang sama dengan ikan mas namun di Amerika Serikat ikan ini dibalut dengan tepung dan digoreng.

Ikan lele mengandung VItamin D yang cukup tinggi.  Ikan lele hasil budi daya mengandung asam lemak omega-3 yang rendah namun memiliki asam lemak omega-6 yang tinggi.

ASAL USUL LELE SANGKURIANG

Siapa yang tidak mengenal ikan lele sangkuriang? Jenis ikan lele yang diperkenalkan oleh Balai Besar Pengembangan Budidaya Air Tawar (BBPBAT) Sukabumi pada tahun 2004 ini dengan cepat menjadi primadona para peternak.  Namun tahukah Anda bahwa ikan lele Sangkuriang ini masih dari jenis lele dumbo?

Penurunan kualitas lele dumbo

Ikan lele dumbo pertama kali diekspor dari Taiwan pada tahun 1985.  Menurut keterangan eksportirnya, lele dumbo merupakan hasil silangan ikan lele asal Taiwan dengan nama latin Clarias Fuscus dengan ikan lele asal Afrika dengan nama latin Clarias Mozambicus.  Namun penelaahan lebih lanjut mengatakan lele dumbo lebih mirip dengan ikan lele asal Afrika dengan nama latin Clarias Gariepinus.

Terlepas dari kontroversi sepesies lele dumbo, diakui bahwa jenis ikan lele ini lebih produktif untuk dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Sehingga hampir semua peternak lele memilih membudidayakan lele dumbo ketimbang lele lokal (Clarias Batrachus) yang saat itu banyak dibudidayakan. Meski daging lele dumbo tak segurih lele lokal, tetap saja memelihara lele dumbo jauh lebih ekonomis dibanding lele lokal.

Lele dumbo bisa tumbuh jauh lebih cepat, ukurannya lebih bongsor dan lebih tahan terhadap berbagai bibit penyakit. Namun keunggulan lele dumbo semakin hari semakin pudar, karena kualitasnya terus menurun. Menurut para pakar, penurunan tersebut disebabkan karena kesalahan dalam pembenihan lele yang terjadi di masyarakat. Banyak ikan lele dumbo yang dikawinkan dengan kerabatnya sendiri (inbreeding). Hal ini memicu penurunan kualitas indukan lele dumbo. Karena pemijahan benih lele menggunakan calon indukan yang salah, lambat laun benih ikan lele dumbo yang beredar di masyarakat semakin turun kualitasnya.

Proyek ikan lele sangkuriang

Baru pada tahun 2000-an, pemerintah lewat BBPBAT melakukan penelitian untuk meningkatkan kembali kualitas lele dumbo. Dengan menggunakan metode silang balik (back cross) ternyata lele dumbo bisa diperbaiki kualitasnya. Kawin silang balik yang dilakukan BBPBAT adalah mengawinkan indukan betina generasi ke-2 atau biasa disebut F2 dari lele dumbo yang pertama kali didatangkan pada tahun 1985, dengan indukan jantan lele dumbo F6.

Perkwainannya melalui dua tahap, pertama mengawinkan indukan betina F2 dengan indukan jantan F2, sehingga dihasilkan lele dumbo jantan F2-6. Kemudian lele dumbo F2-6 jantan ini dikawinkan lagi dengan indukan F2 sehingga dihasilkan ikan lele Sangkuriang.
Proses penelitian ikan lele Sangkuriang memakan waktu yang cukup lama. Dua tahun setelah itu benih lele Sangkuriang baru diperkenalkan secara terbatas.  Pengujian dilakukan pada tahun 2002-2004 di daerah Bogor dan Yogyakarta. Baru pada tahun 2004, dikeluarkan Keputusan Menteri Kelautan tentang pelepasan varietas ikan lele Sangkuriang kepada publik.

Perbandingan yang paling mencolok antara ikan lele dumbo dengan ikan lele Sangkuriang antara lain, adalah kemampuan bertelur (fekunditas) ikan lele sangkuriang yang mencapai 40.000-60.000 per kg induk betina dibanding lele dumbo yang hanya 20.000-30.000, derajat penetasan telur dari ikan lele sangkuriang lebih dari 90% sedangkan lele dumbo lebih dari 80%.

Dilihat dari pertumbuhannya, pembesaran harian ikan lele sangkuriang bisa mencapai 3,53% sedangkan lele dumbo hanya 2,73%. Dan, konversi pakan atau Food Convertion Ratio (FCR) ikan lele sangkuriang mencapai 0,8-1 sementara lele dumbo lebih besar sama dengan 1.  FCR merupakan nisbah antara berat pakan yang diberikan dengan berat pertumbuhan daging ikan. Semakin kecil nisbah FCR semakin ekonomis ikan tersebut dipelihara.

Penamaan ikan lele Sangkuriang mengambil nama seorang anak dari cerita mitologi Sunda. Dalam cerita tersebut adalah seorang anak bernama Sangkuriang yang berhasrat mengawini ibunya sendiri. Mungkin karena hal itulah nama ikan lele Sangkuriang menjadi nama varietas lele hasil silang balik.

Ikan lele Sangkuriang II

Pada tahun 2010, BBPBAT kembali melakukan pengembangan terhadap ikan lele sangkuriang. Kali ini lembaga penelitian plat merah ini mengawinkan lele sangkuriang dengan lele dari sungai Nil, Afrika. Indukan jantan merupakan lele sangkuriang F6 sedangkan indukan betinanya F2 dari Afrika. Indukan dari Afrika ini bobot tubuhnya bisa mencapai 7 kg, diharapkan bisa mendongkrak sifat unggul bagi turunannya.

BBPBAT mengklaim lele sangkuriang II bisa tumbuh 10 persen lebih cepat dari generasi sebelumnya. Ukuran tubuhnya pun lebih bongsor dan yang terpenting lebih tahan terhadap penyakit.

48.883 gagasan untuk “Lele Sangkuriang

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